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Here’s an Idea…Visit a Memorial or Monument for Memorial Day This Year!


One of the most shocking areas to visit in the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific is the memorial to those who were missing in action or were lost in naval battles and were either buried at sea or went down with their ships or aircraft. “In these gardens are recorded the names of Americans who gave their lives in the service of their country and whose earthly resting place is known only to God. | * indicates Medal of Honor award.”

Historically, when I wrote an article regarding Memorial Day, I would publish it during that weekend or as close to the actual day as possible. I chose to take a slightly different approach with today’s post as I am hopeful that I can perhaps influence one or more readers to depart from the weekend getaway plans for camping, fishing, boating, hiking, etc. altering them to include an activity that would cause them to remember and reflect upon their own freedom and that for some American families, this particular holiday is but a painful reminder of the cost of freedom.

An airman poses next to a wrecked American Sherman tank on the shore of Saipan in 1944. This tank remains in place, nearly 75 years later.

When the guns fall silent and the now grizzled and weary combat veterans return home from war, time begins to erode the harsh realities the combatants lived and breathed on the field of battle. As the memories become distorted and faded, faces of those lost in combat are difficult to recall. Though, for many the scars never heal. The battle remains as vivid and crisp throughout the decades. But for the citizens who remained on the home-front, all is easily forgotten.

On the now-silent battlefields of the world wars, reminders can still be found even as the surrounding environment engulfs and enshrouds them. On land and in the surrounding waters of some South Pacific islands, visitors can still locate relics of war. Artillery shells and plane crash sites dot the landscape in places like Guadalcanal and Peleliu. Carcasses and hulks of tanks and AMTRACs (amphibious armored tracked vehicles or LVTs) remain partially or entirely submerged in the reefs of Saipan and Tarawa. But these are far from permanent or honoring remembrances.

The Guadalcanal American Memorial was dedicated in 1992 as a tribute to American and Allied troops who lost their lives in the Guadalcanal Campaign. (Image courtesy of Solomons Scouts and Coastwatchers Trust)

Throughout the many years and decades following the American Civil War, veterans were drawn, compelled by lingering painful memories, returning to the battlefields to retrace their bloody footprints and to reunite with others from their units who were following their own compulsions. By the early 1900s, full-blown reunions were happening in places like Gettysburg as once youthful, sworn enemies came together as aged friends. These old veterans, motivated by their efforts decades earlier, began raising funds with the idea to erect monuments and memorials to commemorate their units’ deeds and to remember those lost during the conflict. Today, there are countless monuments located at the various battlefield sites as well as spread throughout the nation, particularly within the participating states.

The final resting place for the majority of the men who were killed at the Little Big Horn battlefield site is marked with this granite obelisk which contains the names of the men who are interred beneath it.

As the United States has sent men (and women) off to war throughout the last century, the tradition of erecting memorials and monuments has continued both on foreign soil (with local consent and cooperation) and domestically. With the assistance of the military, the American Battle Monuments Commission, state and local governments,  and various veteran service organizations, monuments have been erected in all fifty states as well as within several U.S. territories. 

I make a point of locating local monuments to remind myself that the statistics that are easily found on the internet are more than that to the people of their hometowns. Names etched in stone or cast in bronze are reminders of the very personal cost of war. Sons (and now daughters) who will never return home to their families and loved ones – their names are displayed that we will never forget.

Some local monuments have national significance as they are symbols of the rally-cries – “Remember the Alamo!” “Remember the Arizona!” – that took us to war. In San Antonio, the Alamo mission is faithfully preserved. At Pearl Harbor, the Arizona Memorial sits astride the sunken ship, recalling the Day of Infamy. In my hometown, a small, nearly forgotten memorial stands as a reminder of war that most of my generation have no knowledge of.

“Remember the Maine!”
In a local park, there stands a small pedestal holding a ten-inch naval gun shell that was removed from the sunken armored cruiser, USS Maine (ACR-1).  The sinking of the ship was an impetus that vaulted the United States into a war with Spain, two months later (though the cataclysmic explosion that that destroyed the Maine remains a mystery that some experts believe could have been merely a crew-caused mishap or accident).

At my city’s War Memorial Park (interestingly, the Maine monument is not located here), a large bell hangs with the name of a navy ship and the date of which the ship was commissioned, cast into its face. Very few details are known about this ship, only that it was a protected cruiser and that it was lost when it became entrapped on a reef near Vera Cruz, Mexico, breaking apart in a heavy storm. The ship, named for this city, was commissioned in 1903 and served in World War I, ran aground lodging herself on a reef as it approached the port in 1924. Some suspect that the navigation aids marking the channel had been moved by Mexican revolutionaries. The commanding officer of the ship, Captain Herbert G. Sparrow, gave his life, refusing to leave the ship, hopeful that the USS Tacoma could be saved. Along with the captain, four radiomen lost their lives while the rest of the crew had been evacuated under the orders of the captain.

Some collectors I know, spend lifetimes attempting to bring home the uniforms, medals and other militaria items as they assemble displays to honor their hometown heroes, utilizing the names etched on their local monuments.

This memorial Day, along with paying respects to those lives who were lost in service to our nation, I encourage you to locate the monuments and memorials in your local areas and pay a visit to at least one:

As you will note, the above list has nothing from the Korean or Vietnam wars as there are only a handful that exist throughout our country. As the planning for the Iraq and Afghanistan War memorial is planning and development (it was approved by Congress a few years ago), it seems that our nation is truly forgetting about those from the most recent conflicts and becoming increasingly indifferent towards service men and women and our veterans. Apathy and complacency becomes animosity and sadly our nation is already in the early stages of that transition.

Viewing the original mooring quay that the USS Arizona was tied to (when she was attacked) from within the memorial.

Collecting, preserving, researching and documenting military artifacts is another vehicle by which a small segment of the population honors those who served. This passion can serve to maintain the face of the veteran in conjunction with the sacrifice and service. Monuments and memorials provide communities with a focal point with which to assemble and remember the many generations of our fellow citizens who never returned home to their families. Memorial Day serving as a vehicle with which to re-center our citizens’ understanding of service and self-sacrifice and the very real cost of freedom.

I emphatically encourage Americans (natural born, naturalized and would-be citizens) to embrace this nation’s history. One of the best ways with which to learn about the sacrifices that were made throughout our nation’s founding and preservation is to visit the monuments and memorials dedicated to those who gave their last full measure of devotion that we all would live and cherish our freedom.

The USS Arizona Memorial is lighted at dusk with the USS Vincennes (CG-49) moored across the South Channel at Hotel Pier.

The original source of the cliche’ that is often repeated on Memorial and Veteran’s Day, “Freedom is not free,” seems to be author-less. However, it is my belief that the origins of that thought stem from yet another oft-recycled excerpt from a letter penned by Thomas Jefferson (on November 13, 1787 to William S. Smith):

“..what country can preserve it’s liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance? Let them take arms. The remedy is to set them right as to facts, pardon & pacify them. What signify a few lives lost in a century or two? The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots & tyrants. It is it’s natural manure.”

Granted, Jefferson was referring to rebellion and revolution, however the sentiment applies to the restoration of freedom in foreign lands and the preservation of it for our own. The blood of patriots has been spilled since our nation was founded recommencing with the War of 1812 on through to present day. Standing on the hallowed battlefield grounds within our shores, once can gain a sense for the horrors of war an the sacrifices made by our great grandfathers, grandfathers, fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, sons and daughters.  This heritage belongs to all Americans, despite their nation of origin. Along with their freedom, they also inherit the history and legacy that is represented by the memorials and monuments found within our nation’s cemeteries, battlefields and public spaces, located domestically and abroad: American Battlefields and Monuments Commission: Cemeteries and Memorials.


Other related Veteran’s Collection articles:

Memorials and monuments references and resources:

“We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” Abraham Lincoln, November 19, 1863

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The Blades That Got Away


Is there truly such a thing as being too greedy? Can someone be overcome with coveting? I am certain that the pursuit of objects (of my desire) is a pathway that I should try to avoid (or, at the very least, make a concerted effort to avoid), but in some cases, the end result is a boot print in your own derriere after passing on the opportunity to acquire a beautiful piece of militaria.

Sadly, I only have photos of the Model 1860 Cavalry Sword's handle.

Sadly, I only have photos of the Model 1860 Cavalry Sword’s handle.

A few years ago, a relative of mine who was a militaria collector (specifically, Civil War) passed away after a lengthy illness. At the time of his passing, his collection included Spanish-American War rifles, post Civil War belt buckles, and an assortment of edged weapons spanning more than 100 years and representing multiple branches of service.

Showing the Back side of the Model 1860 Cavalry Sword.

Showing the Back side of the Model 1860 Cavalry Sword.

Knowing that I have a passion for military history and military collectibles, though I am by no means an expert, my family asked for my assistance in identifying certain items and assessing values for the estate. Notebook, pen and Blackberry (with a built-in, crummy low-resolution digital camera) in hand, I made my way over to my relative’s home to begin my work.

Prior to my arrival, all of the militaria pieces had been gathered (piled) into one of the rooms and I was immediately overwhelmed by what was there. Separating the items I could easily identify from those that needed research, I began to document and inventory everything. I knew that because of the assistance I was rendering, I’d have the first opportunity to purchase anything that interested me, should the beneficiary choose to sell.

Showing the hilt and maker's marks on the Ames Model 1832 Artillery Foot Sword.

Showing the hilt and maker’s marks on the Ames Model 1832 Artillery Foot Sword.

Diving into the edged weapons, I quickly jotted down the details – M1904 Hospital Corps boloM1910 Bolo Machete,M1913 Patton SabreWWII USMC Pharmacist’s Mate Bolo, many types of bayonets… the list went on. The two pieces that really caught my attention were very old. One, an M1832 Foot Artillery sword and a Model 1860 Cavalry Trooper’s sword. Both were in pristine condition.

I went home and did my research, comparing the photos I snapped against those of the various online and printed references. Adding up the blades and the corresponding values, I set aside the funds in order to pay for the ones I wanted and submitted the work to the estate. I intentionally left off the two oldest blades as I my budget couldn’t accommodate those high-dollar (for me) purchases.

Showing the eagle in the Ames Model 1832 Artillery Foot Sword. This one is dated 1840.

Showing the eagle in the Ames Model 1832 Artillery Foot Sword. This one is dated 1840.

A few months later, the blades that I was seeking to acquire were delivered to me as a gift. The other pieces that I turned away were sold – for pennies on the dollar – to the estate sales company that was contracted to liquidate the personal property. I was heartbroken. The two blades that I really wanted for my collection were sold at such a low price, I could have easily paid for them even if I was required to buy the blades that I had been given.

Because I chose to collect within my means, someone else benefited and made a killing on these two blades. I will think twice before I make this decision again.

Shadow Boxing – Determining What to Source


(Note: This is the first part in a series of posts. For the following articles, see the list below)

This bullion cavalry hat device could be a centerpiece and would look fantastic in a display (source: Mosby & Co Auctions).

This bullion cavalry hat device could be a centerpiece and would look fantastic in a display (source: Mosby & Co Auctions).

For me, collecting militaria has been an adventure of discovery as I learn about who my ancestors were and what they did to contribute to the freedoms we enjoy in the United States today. As I’ve stated in earlier posts, my research began with the receipt of a handful of militaria pieces and documents for two of my relatives who served in the armed forces.

Rather than simply store the items in a drawer or closet, I wanted to assemble and display them in such a manner as to succinctly describe their service. Seeking to be as complete as possible, I sent for the service records for both relatives so that I could fill in the gaps if there were any missing decorations from what I already possessed. Upon receipt of the records from the National Archives, I noted that there were, in fact, several awards that had never been issued to either veteran (many service members were discharged at the war’s end war, prior to the decorations being created and subsequently awarded) and promptly obtained the missing pieces.

“I” Company of the famed Rush’s Lancers. Photos like these go a long way to help collectors seek the correct items for accurate displays. This photo was taken by Matthew Brady.

“I” Company of the famed Rush’s Lancers. Photos like these go a long way to help collectors seek the correct items for accurate displays. This photo was taken by Matthew Brady.

In preparation for assembling the displays, I was motivated to learn all that I could about others in my family who served. As I worked on my family tree, I began to discover that there were veterans at each successive prior generation who served. From Vietnam to the Korean War, World War II to the Great War, from the Civil War, the war of 1812 and finally, the American Revolution, I had ancestors who were participants. At the prompting of my kids’ inquiries as to who these people were and what they did, I embarked on a mission to assemble tangible representations of some of the notable veterans in the family lineage – including uniform items, awards and decorations.

This is a close-up of the soldiers of “I” Company , 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. This photo was taken by Matthew Brady and clearly shows the weapon that gave the regiment its name.

This is a close-up of the soldiers of “I” Company, 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. This photo was taken by Matthew Brady and clearly shows the weapon that gave the regiment its name.

Limited by financial resources and storage space, I needed to choose the people from our past that would garner my collecting attention. This decision has caused me to abstain from purchasing some of the items that I found very interesting but couldn’t justify acquiring (after all, I am not creating a museum in my home).

One of my recent discoveries is that veteran in my lineage served in a storied regiment during the American Civil War. This unit, the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry, was the only mounted regiment to be equipped with the lance as their primary weapon, prompting the nickname of Rush’s Lancers (Lt. Colonel Richard Rush was the unit’s first commanding officer). While my ancestor wasn’t a distinguished veteran or officer (he was a corporal), he did serve throughout most of the war, participating in many of the bloodiest battles.

Well out of my budget, this Lance (that was carried by a member of Rankin’s Michigan Lancers) during the Civil War, sold at auction for $1,440.00 a few years ago (Source: Cowan’s Auctions).

Well out of my budget, this Lance (that was carried by a member of Rankin’s Michigan Lancers) during the Civil War, sold at auction for $1,440.00 a few years ago (Source: Cowan’s Auctions).

I have been pondering how I could create a tasteful, yet small assembly of items that would provide an authentic and visually appealing display. What sort of items are available (and that I could afford) that would fit into a smaller shadow box and tell a story of my great, great, great grandfather’s service?

While this cavalry button (as distinguished by the “C” on the eagle’s shield) may be accurate for a cavalryman, it isn’t appropriate for my ancestor’s display as he was a corporal. I am still researching the proper buttons for display to confirm my suspicions, but I may be faced with purchasing the extremely rare Pennsylvania-specific buttons – as Rush’s Lancers were not a mainline Union Army regiment.

While this cavalry button (as distinguished by the “C” on the eagle’s shield) may be accurate for a cavalryman, it isn’t appropriate for my ancestor’s display as he was a corporal. I am still researching the proper buttons for display to confirm my suspicions, but I may be faced with purchasing the extremely rare Pennsylvania-specific buttons – as Rush’s Lancers were not a mainline Union Army regiment.

Taking into account that my relative was a member of the Union Army, I could pursue pieces of the Union uniform such as buttons or other devices. I would need to focus on cavalry as their buttons are different from those of the infantry. If I was fortunate enough to locate one at a reasonable price, I could obtain the kepi hat device. Including excavated items such as ammunition rounds for weapons carried by cavalry (such as .52- or .56-caliber carbine or .36- or .44-caliber revolver rounds) that were found on one of the unit’s battlefields would be a terrific accent to the display. Ideally, I’d like to get my hands on the blade from a lance, but with the lofty price (one was sold at auction in 2005 for $1,440.00) they command, I will have to abstain. If I can locate a period-correct Civil War medal, it would be icing on the cake.

No matter the direction that I ultimately decide to take, I know that I will be spending the next several months scouring the online dealers and auction sites to acquire the pieces. In the meantime, I await my great, great great grandfather’s service records so that I can (hopefully) nail down his service and create an accurate display.

Continued:

 

Due Diligence – Researching My Ancestor’s Civil War Service


(Note: This is third installment of a multi-part series covering my research and collecting project for one of my ancestors who was a veteran of the American Civil War)

Like investing in the stock market, collecting is a long-term venture in which only those with considerable patience and persistence combined with a sense of timing in concert with knowledge, will succeed. Before one commits financial resources to a particular stock, the investor will have performed some manner of due diligence, researching the aspects of the company’s business plan, leadership, as well as short and long-term projections.

When attempting to assemble a display, group or particular theme of militaria, a collector must research the era, unit and veteran(s) before initiating research of the proper item(s) that would be suitable for the collection. One must also be familiar with what to avoid. In the area of Civil War militaria where “insignificant” pieces such as authentic uniform buttons can reach prices near (and sometimes in excess of) $100, collectors need to be aware of the fakes and reproductions.

The second Regimental flag of the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry - the unit in which my 3x great grandfather served (source: Pennsylvania capital Preservation Committee).

The second Regimental flag of the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry – the unit in which my 3x great grandfather served (source: Pennsylvania capital Preservation Committee).

Recently, I posted about a commemorative display (to honor an ancestor) that I had begun to assemble. I was kicking off that project with the acquisition of a .52 caliber Sharps Carbine bullet that was discovered at the battlefield of Malvern Hill in Henrico County, Virginia. During my (previous) genealogical research, I discovered that my great, great, great grandfather had served in the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry during the Civil War. Seeking to honor one of my direct ancestors, I decided to create a shadow box to perpetuate the memory his sacrifice and service during one of the most terrible wars in our nation’s history.

Early on in my research, I discovered that my ancestor, Corporal Jarius Heilig, had been discharged prior to the end of what should have been a three-year enlistment – the same as the balance of the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry. In addition, I located pension documents  (from the late 19th century) that showed my 3x great grandfather had been disabled due to something that had happened to him during the war. Armed with this information, I began to question how he had been disabled. Had he been wounded by an enemy round? Did he sustain shrapnel wounds from an exploding artillery shell? Eager to clearly document his military service as well as fuel my shadow box collecting efforts, I submitted a request to the National Archives to obtain Heilig’s Civil War service records.

Three weeks after submitting my request, a package was delivered to my mailbox and my excitement began to escalate. I ran into the house while tearing into the padded envelope. I rushed to my computer to insert the CD (I had the choice or paper copies or the disc) into my computer. Hoping that the documents (contained on the disc) would solve the mystery and provide me with specific details, I began to read through the scanned documents, most of which were muster sheets showing locations and dates.

Thirteen pages in all, the single, most important document was the discharge certificate which described the reason for his early release from duty (February, 1863). There it was, written in beautiful penmanship, the reality of war for my ancestor, a cavalry soldier. It seems that he sustained a disabling knee injury as the result of being kicked by a horse. Unable to perform his duties, he was released to return to his family. Unfortunately for Heilig, it seems that he suffered from the injury for the rest of his life.

The scan of my 3x great grandfather's Civil War discharge document showing his service and his wound.

The scan of my 3x great grandfather’s Civil War discharge document showing his service and his wound.

Needless to say the discovery had been a letdown of sorts. I called my mother to relay my discovery and my disappointment to her. Surprisingly, my mother noted that there was also an absence of detail – information about the circumstances of the horse-kick incident. Had he fallen from his horse (on a cavalry charge in battle) and sustained the wound as a result of being dismounted in the fray?

Unfortunately, we will never know.

Continued:

Decorating Sacrifice: Honoring Our Fallen


Most Americans have no connection Memorial Day, their heritage or to the legacy left behind by those who gave their lives in service to this country.

Most Americans have no connection Memorial Day, their heritage or to the legacy left behind by those who gave their lives in service to this country.

This weekend, we Americans are being inundated with myriad auditory treats, such as the sound of burgers and hot dogs sizzling on the barbecue grill, the roar of the ski boats tearing across the lake, the rapid-clicking of fishing reels spinning, or the din of children playing in the backyard. All of this points to the commencement of summer and the excitement-filled season of outdoor activities, vacations and fun. The bonus is that we get to extend this weekend by a day and play a little harder as that’s what this weekend is all about!

With the opening volleys of artillery (the Confederates firing on Fort Sumter) in the early morning hours of Friday, April 12, 1861, a war of the bloodiest nature commenced within the confines of what was known as the United States of America, but which was anything but united. The division of the states had been years in the making as the founding fathers could hardly agree on the slavery issue when trying to establish a single Constitution that would bind the individual states together as one unified nation. The division led to an all-out conflict—a war that would pit brother against brother and father against son—that wouldn’t cease until almost exactly four years later (at Appomattox on April 10, 1865) and three-quarters of a million Americans were dead (the number was recently revised, up from 618,000, by demographic historians).

A 1911 reunion pamphlet for the United Confederate Veterans organization.

A 1911 reunion pamphlet for the United Confederate Veterans organization.

In the days, weeks, months and years that followed, the sting of the Civil War would linger as families suffered the loss of generations of men. The Southern States where battles took place had cities that were obliterated. The agricultural Industry was devastated. The business operation surrounding the king crop of the south, cotton, heavily dependent upon slave labor, had to be completely revamped. Many plantations never returned to operation. The Northern industries that had grown extremely profitable and dependent upon the war, churning out uniforms, accouterments, artillery pieces and ammunition, no longer had a customer.

 

Although the South was undergoing reconstruction and the nation was moving to put the war in the past, and some Americans who lost everything were seeking to start afresh in the West. Like the servicemen and women of the current conflicts, Union and Confederate veterans alike were dealing with the same lingering effects of the combat trauma they had endured. While life for them was moving on, they were drawn to their comrades-in-arms seeking the friendship they shared while in uniform. In 1866, Union veterans began reuniting, forming a long-standing veterans organization (which would last until 1956 when the last veteran died) that would be known as the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR). Similarly, Confederate troops would reunite, but wouldn’t formally organize until 1889 with the United Confederate Veterans.

While the country was still engaged in the war, the spouses and mothers of troops, along with their local communities, honored those killed in the war—the scant few that were returned home for burial—by decorating their graves. Freed slaves (known as Freedmen) from Charleston, South Carolina, knew of a tragedy that took place at a prisoner of war (POW) camp where there were more than 250 Union soldiers who had died in captivity and had been buried in unmarked graves. The Freedmen, knowing about the graves, organized and gathered at the burial site to beautify the grounds in recognition of the sacrifices made by the soldiers on their behalf. On May 1, 1865, nearly 10,000 Freedmen, Union veterans, school children and missionaries and black ministers, gathered to honor the dead at the site on what would come to be recognized as the first Memorial Day.

“This was the first Memorial Day. African-Americans invented Memorial Day in Charleston, South Carolina. What you have there is black Americans recently freed from slavery announcing to the world with their flowers, their feet, and their songs what the War had been about. What they basically were creating was the Independence Day of a Second American Revolution.” – historian David W. Blight

The largest gathering of Civil War veterans took place in 1913 at the Gettysburg battlefield, marking the 50th anniversary of this monumental battle. Soldiers from all of the participating units converged on the various sites to recount their actions, conduct reenactments, and to simply reconnect with their comrades. Heavily documented by photographers and newsmen alike, the gathering gave twentieth century Americans a glimpse into the past and the personal aspects of the battles and the lifelong impact they had on these men. By the 1930s, the aged veterans numbers had dwindled considerably yet they still continued to reunite. In one of these last gatherings, Confederate veterans recreated their battle cry, the Rebel Yell, for in this short film (digitized by the Smithsonian Institute).

The Militaria Collecting Connection

GAR Membership medals are very collectible and are reasonably priced.

GAR Membership medals are very collectible and are reasonably priced.

While collecting Civil War militaria can be quite an expensive venture, items related to these veterans organizations and reunions are a great alternative. One item that is particularly interesting, the GAR membership medal, was authorized for veterans to wear on military uniforms by Congressional action. The medals or badges were used to indicate membership within the organization or to commemorate one of its annual reunions or gatherings.

Over the years following the 1913 reunion, veterans and their families increasingly honored those killed during the war around the same time each year. As early as 1882, the day to honor the Civil War dead (traditionally, May 30) was also known as Memorial Day. After gaining popularity in the years following World War II, Memorial Day became official as congress passed a law in 1967, recognizing Memorial Day as a federal holiday. The following year, on June 28, the holiday was moved to the last Monday of May, creating a three-day weekend.

A woman walks the cemetery grounds on Memorial Day.

A woman walks the cemetery grounds on Memorial Day.

The grave of Union Veteran and GAR member, Omar Cheney.

The grave of Union Veteran and GAR member, Omar Cheney.

This Memorial Day, rather than committing the day to squeezing in one last waterskiing pass on the lake or grilling up a slab of ribs, head out to a cemetery (preferably a National Cemetery if you are in close enough proximity) and decorate a veteran’s grave with a flag and spend time in reflection of the price paid by all service members who laid down their lives for this nation. Note the stark contrast to the violence experienced on the field of battle as you take in the stillness and quiet peace of the surroundings, observing the gentleness of the billowing flags.