Monthly Archives: April 2017

Bataan/Corregidor POWs – Looking Back 75 Years


Five months. Depending upon your perspective, this span of time may seem to be a brief moment or a lifetime. If you are anticipating a well-planned vacation, you count the days down with excitement. If you are completing a career and your retirement date is approaching, you might have some anxiety about the significant change in life that you are facing. For the men on Corregidor in May of 1942, it was the culmination of a long-fought battle that was about to come to an end.

The Japanese had planned simultaneous, coordinated attacks on United States military bases in an effort to subjugate American resistance to their dominance in the Western Pacific. Seeking to seize control of natural resources throughout Asia and the South Pacific, the Empire of Japan had already been marching through China, and having invaded Manchuria in 1931, they continued with full-scale war in 1937 as they took Shanghai and Nanking, killing countless thousands during the initial days of hostilities. American sanctions and military forces, although not actively engaged, stood firmly in the Japanese path of dominance.

A copy of the transfer orders for the 5th Air Base Group, October 1941. My uncle’s father is listed here along with one other veteran who was with him throughout his entire stay as a guest of the Empire of Japan.

The father of my uncle (by marriage), enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Corps in 1941 and was assigned to the Decontamination Unit of the 4th Chemical Company, one of 204 members of the 5th Air Base Group that had been transferred to the in Far East Air Force in the Philippines in late October. Like many other new privates, this man had enlisted to escape the tight grip of the Great Depression and massive unemployment, seeking steady pay while embracing a new life of service to his country. The Philippine Islands, though remote and thousands of miles away from the comforts of home, represented a certain measure of adventure. He was unaware what the next four years would bring.

On December 8, 1942, Japanese forces landed on Luzon in the Philippines as they kicked off what would become a lengthy campaign in an effort to gain control of the strategic location and to remove the threat of any resistance of their ever-expanding empire by the forces of the United States. Grossly under-prepared for war, the 150,000 troops (a combination of American and Philippine forces) were plunged into battle, defending against the onslaught of the 130,000 well-seasoned, battle-hardened enemy forces.

The American forces were almost immediately cut off from the promised supplies and reinforcements that would never be sent.

 

Over the course of the next five months, U.S. and Philippine forces fought a losing battle in an almost constant state of retreat as supplies wore thin and troops wore out. Exhausted, beat-up and starving, the defenders (of the Bataan Peninsula and Corregidor) were done. Having suffered considerable losses (25,000 killed and 21,000 wounded), General Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright indicated surrender by lowering the Stars and Stripes and raising the white flag of surrender. More than 100,000 troops were now prisoners of war in the custody of the Imperial Japanese forces and would endure some of the most inhumane and brutal treatment every foisted upon POWs. My uncle’s father, a young private was now among the captured, on the march to an uncertain future.

An engraved mess kit from a Bataan veteran (photo source: Corregidor – Then and Now).

The five months of uncertainty and hopelessness that my uncle’s father experienced as a Bataan Defender since hostilities began would become years of daily struggles to survive in prison camps where beatings, starvation and executions were the new normal.

A POW letter to loved ones providing basic information of internment (photo source: Corregidor – Then and Now).

To say that Prisoner of War artifacts are a rarity is a gross understatement. POWs (captives of the Japanese) had to scrounge, steal and beg for basic necessities. Any personal possessions they might have had during the 80-mile forced march were taken once they arrived at makeshift camps. Those few captives who were crafty would manage to conceal small mementos, avoiding detection by the prison guards.

Aside from personal accounts of the atrocities that were told by liberated prisoners after the war, documentation proved helpful in war crime trials of the Japanese camp administrators. Prisoners ferreted away scarce paper and documented brutal acts and names of POWs who were killed or died of disease and starvation. Any of the items that were brought home by these men have tremendous significance as historical records and possess value well beyond a price tag.

May 6, 2017 marks the 75th anniversary of the surrender that launched a painful chapter in my uncle’s father’s life that remained with him for the rest of his years. Through my research, I have been able to determine that he was a POW at the Davao Penal Colony until it was closed in August of 1944. By the war’s end, he had been moved to Nagoya #5-B having made the trip to Japan aboard one of the infamous Hell Ships.

He never really talked about his experiences (at least with me). This man chose instead to let the past remain in its proper place. Unfortunately, I don’t know what might have become of any items he may have returned home with. My hope is that if they do exist, his POW artifacts are with his children or grandchildren, preserved in hopes that his experiences are not forgotten.

Bataan Prisoners of War References:

You Have the Right to…Collect Armed Forces LEO Militaria


This current-issue NCIS badge is mounted to a leather holder (source: US Navy).

Militaria collecting has a broad spectrum possessing many facets that allow people to specialize or focus their efforts on specific themes or concepts. Aside from settling on a particular branch or time period, collectors might choose to get very narrow with their collections. Some of these focus areas might even cross over into other collecting genres. One category or focus area that has grabbed the attention of collectors beyond the bounds of militaria is law enforcement within the ranks of the armed forces.

When considering military law enforcement, one might immediately begin to think of the Naval Criminal Investigative Service (or NCIS) that has been popularized by the  television drama franchise on CBS. The Army has their own similar organization, United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (CID). However, the law enforcement community within the armed forces is significantly more broad, which means that collectors have many options and avenues to pursue.

A nice example of a US Army MIS Badge (image source: U.S. Army)

Aside from the civilian-staffed agencies such as the NCIS and CID, there are plenty of uniformed active duty departments and billets that are filled by military personnel. In addition, there are duty-based positions that are performed as an extra responsibility outside the daily duties of the service members’ normal MOS, specialty or job assignment. Regardless of the specific role, there are opportunities for collectors to obtain law enforcement militaria.

In existence since the Revolutionary War, the U.S. Army’s Military Police Corps was not officially organized until September of 1941, when it was formally established. The U.S. Navy’s version of the MP, the Master-at-Arms, has been in place since the nineteenth century, predominantly serving aboard ship in the early days.

One of the more diverse categories of objects available for collectors is in the area of brassards, or arm bands. Within the Air Force Security Police (SP) and Army, this area could present collectors with limitless varieties from countless military police commands. Within the Navy and Marine Corps, there are a fair amount of Shore Patrol (SP) brassard versions—easily confused with the Air Force versions—dating back to well before the second world war.

This Shore Patrol brassard is a 1980s vintage. Modern SP arm bands lacking the Velcro attachments can be difficult to discern from examples from the WWII-era.

A Master-at-arms badge, dating to the 1970s, was used aboard the aircraft carrier, USS Lexington when she was designated a training carrier.

Along with arm bands, collectors could launch into military law enforcement collecting by pursuing badges. Keep in mind that there could be laws that prohibit owning current versions of these law enforcement badges. Possessing a currently-issued badge could result in considerable legal trouble so be sure to understand what is permissible in your area prior to acquiring the badge. Typically, obsolete badges should be allowable, but I would encourage collectors to remain familiar with their local laws.

Besides brassards and badges, collectors could pursue helmets, uniforms, utility/web belts (and all the attachments) and weapons, such as side arms and batons.  The trick is to find your niche and stay within your budget.

 

 

Military Police Collecting

 

I am an American Veteran with Canadian Military Heritage


I’ve been revisiting my family tree research, spurred on by catching up on watching episodes of The Learning Channel’s Who Do You Think You Are? (WDYTYA) The show follows a pretty simplistic theme of tracing some Hollywood notable’s ancestral history as they have been suddenly overcome with desire to know where they came from. There is always some sort of misplaced desire for self-validation as they seek to identify with the very real struggles that someone in their family tree endured centuries ago. In watching them I often find the humor as the celebrity emotionally aligns with a nine or ten times great grandparent as if that person were an active part of their life. Where the humor in this originates is that one must consider exactly how many great grandparents one has at this particular point in our ancestry.

My 3x great grandfather (one of sixteen such 3x great grandfathers) served with the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry during the American Civil War) and like the Hollywood celebrities on WDYTYA, I have researched him extensively and I do identify with him. But consider that there are 15 other 3x great grandfathers along with eight 2x greats, four greats and two grandfathers. That means that five generations above me encompass 28 grandfathers including the lone Civil War veteran that I thoroughly researched. If viewed this prospective with another one of the great grandfathers (whom I researched and found to have served during the American Revolution), he would be one of 64 5x great grandfathers (for a total of 254 total grandfathers at this generation-level). This can get confusing to grasp without a visual:

When folks refer to their 7th great grandfather, what does that mean? Did they have more than one? The answer is that everyone has 256 7th great grandfathers. It is simple math, folks!

There are a few other pieces that I have for the display that I am assembling, including a section of vintage ribbon for the service medal. The shoulder tabs are a more recent acquisition as is the CFC hat badge (bottom left) that my 2x great grandfather wore prior to being assigned to the 230th. The two smaller insignia flanking the medal were worn on the uniform collar. The pin on the lower right was a veteran’s organization pin.

I have been gathering artifacts together to create representations of some of my ancestors with military service. I have been sporadically researching as many relatives as I can locate to document a historical narrative of service by members of my family. This is a daunting task considering how many direct ancestors I have and I have been also including some uncles and cousins as I uncover them. One of my 2x great grandfathers (one of 8 such great grandfathers) was a British citizen who emigrated to Victoria, British Columbia with his wife and ten children a few years following the turn of the twentieth century. By the time the Great War broke out in Europe in 1914, he was a 45-year-old carpenter and home builder. When he was drafted into the Forestry Corps of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) in June of 1916, he was 47 and a widower.  He served in Europe for the duration of the war harvesting timber for use in the war effort, plying his carpentry skills in some fashion being far too old for combat duty.

Having a Canadian veteran ancestor (one of two – I wrote about the other one, previously) posed some challenges in researching his service as nearly every aspect of research is different from what I am familiar with (with American military records). Learning the terminology and the unit structure was difficult but even more challenging was deciphering my GG grandfather’s service records let alone locating details as to what his uniform insignia and devices would have been. Thanks to a few helpful CEF sites and forums, I was able to piece together some of the principle elements in order to assemble a shadow box at some point in the future.

This is a simple, yet tasteful display of a veteran of the 230th Canadian Forestry Corps from WWI. This soldier was in the same unit as my 2x great grandfather.

As any Canadian militaria collector could tell you, locating pieces from individual regiments/units of the Forestry Corps can be daunting. When I started on this path a few years ago, the prices were higher than those of American units by as much as three times. Collar and cap devices and badges were can reach prices beyond $40-50 (collar) and $70-100 (for caps badges). Not that ever intended to purchase actual uniforms pieces (tunic, cap, hat, etc.), I still maintained a watchful eye just to see what might show up for sale. Today, my eyes were enlarged and mouth left agape when something appeared in my automated search for such items.

Listed yesterday on eBay was a 1917-dated British trench hat that is in impeccable condition, complete with the badge of my 2x great-grandfather’s unit. Everything about this century-old cap seems to be in an incredible state – the hat’s shape, the leather sweatband – all of it. But then I saw the opening bid amount – $750.00 (in USD) – and immediately, my jaw struck my desktop beneath me! In the “People who viewed this item also viewed” section were British head covers (one trench hat and two visor caps) of comparable condition but with devices from other, non-Forestry units with prices that ranged from $500-700, depending upon the unit insignia. The hat from my ancestor’s unit topped the range of prices. Being in possession of the cap device, I wouldn’t need to pursue such an expensive purchase (I don’t need the hat for the display that I am assembling) so I will simply watch to see if the hat does end up finding a new home and take note of the selling price.

With just one of my maternal 2x great grandfathers with military service (albeit, British-Canadian) and none of my paternal 2x great grandfathers, I don’t have any more military artifacts left to gather for this particular generation (unless I am able to discover new facts for others). The preceding and following  generations reveal that I have a lot of research effort in store for me not to mention what lies ahead for me within my wife’s equally extensive family military history.

 

A Collection of Buildings with a Nice Lawn: A Large Piece of British Military History


Established in 1914, the construction of the airfield was in response to Britain's rapid advancement in combat aviation (source: Stow-Maries Aerodrome.com).

Established in 1914, the construction of the airfield was in response to Britain’s rapid advancement in combat aviation (source: Stow-Maries Aerodrome.com).

I continuously ask myself, “what constitutes militaria?” When I face a writer’s block moment while searching for a topic to present to you all, I find myself chasing my tail as I try to connect the subject to the military. This exercise and subsequent dance can be very revealing for me but it always brings me back to what energizes me about what I enjoy. Plainly speaking, this has always been about history for me.

Since I started writing about militaria for Collectors Quest in 2010 and carried on to my own blog, The Veteran’s Collection, I have tried to keep an open mind with regards to collecting items related to the military. Though I have spent a significant amount of time with naval-themed memorabilia, there have been several posts that delve into other service branches as well as pieces that are related to specific historic events. All of it has merely been a surface-scratching exercise.

This vintage photo shows the original hangars at the Stow Maries Aerodrome in use during the war (source: StowMaries Aerodrome.com).

This vintage photo shows the original hangars at the Stow Maries Aerodrome in use during the war (source: StowMaries Aerodrome.com).

Several of my topics come out of left field (I would imagine that most of my regular readers know by now that I love baseball with posts like this and this, so sorry for the pun if you are new here) like today’s subject – which is uncharted territory for this blog and definitely a new area for me.

For most Americans, World War I is merely an event that happened a long time ago. Very few of my generation have a personal connection to anyone who served in this war. If one would take a drive through my local military installation (which was rapidly constructed to facilitate troop training for WWI), it would be difficult to find any reminders, such as buildings or other structures, that date back to the 1917-1918 time period. The needs of the ever-changing U.S. Army have kept the base in a constant state of adapting to the mission. What would it have been like to stroll the parade and drill grounds of a WWI military camp? Sadly, it is only imaginable by viewing vintage photos. Archaeologists are now involved in uncovering history as long-lost battlefields are discovered and unearthed.

Set in 79 acres with 22 buildings, the airfield site near Chelmsford, Essex, was used as a base for the 37th Squadron, Royal Flying Corps (source: Stow Maries Aerodrome.com).

Set in 79 acres with 22 buildings, the airfield site near Chelmsford, Essex, was used as a base for the 37th Squadron, Royal Flying Corps (source: Stow Maries Aerodrome.com).

What if you wanted to walk the grounds? What if you wanted to see the structures the way they were when they were in use during the war? For a (then, in 2012) cool $3.14M, one could have purchased a piece of historic real estate in Chelmsford, Essex (in the United Kingdom), complete with 22 buildings, a museum and a functional grass airfield. The Stow Maries Aerodrome, home of the 37th Squadron, Royal Flying Corps was constructed in 1914 to train and equip British aviators in the defense of London during the Great War.

Granted, it would be an amazing experience to own such a piece of history, but the maintenance of century-old, hastily built facilities would require considerable financial resources. Regardless of the cost to own and operate the facility, it would be amazing to host reenactments and vintage aircraft fly-ins. Imagine hearing the sound of 2 Rolls Royce Eagle II, inline V-12s of a Handley Page heavy bomber firing up for a flight.

If this property were to return to the market, to whom would I make the check to?