Category Archives: USMC

Consistency through Change – The U.S. Army Uniform


This uniform, though an immediate post-Civil War-issue, is clearly that of a sergeant in the U.S. Cavalry as noted by the gold chevrons (hand-tinted in the photo).

This uniform, though an immediate post-Civil War-issue, is clearly that of a sergeant in the U.S. Cavalry as noted by the gold chevrons (hand-tinted in the photo).

Over the weekend leading up to Independence Day, I had been inspired by my family military service research project, which had me neck-deep in the American Civil War, which caused me to drag out a few DVDs for the sheer joy of watching history portrayed on the screen. Since the Fourth of July was coming up, I wanted to be sure to view director Ronald Maxwell’s 1993 film Gettysburg, on or near the anniversary of the battle, which took place on July 1-3, 1863.

I had watched these films (including Gods and Generals and Glory) countless times in the past, but this weekend, I employed more scrutiny while looking at the uniforms and other details. Paying particular attention to the fabrics of the uniforms, I was observing the variations for the different functions (such as artillerymen, cavalrymen, and infantry) while noting how the field commanders could observe from vantage points where these regiments were positioned, making any needed adjustments to counter the opponents’ movements or alignments. For those commanders, visual observations from afar were imperative and the uniforms (and regimental colors/flags) were mandatory to facilitate good decision making.

The tactics employed for the majority of the Civil War were largely carryovers from previous conflicts and had not kept pace with the advancement of the weaponry. Armies were still arranged in battle lines facing off with the enemy at very close range (the blue of the Union and the gray of the Confederacy), before the commands were given to open fire with the rifles and side arms. The projectile technology and barrel rifling present in the almost all of the infantry firearms meant that a significantly higher percentage of the bullets would strike the targets. In prior conflicts where smooth-bore muskets and round-ball projectiles were the norm, hitting the target was met with far less success.

The uniforms of the Civil War had also seen some advancement as they departed from the highly stylized affairs of the Revolution to a more functional design. In the years following the war, uniform designs saw some minor alterations through the Indian Wars and into the Spanish American War. By World War I, concealment and camouflaging the troops started to become a consideration of military leadership. Gone were the colorful fabrics, exchanged for olive drab (OD) green. By World War II, camo patterns began to emerge in combat uniforms for the army and marines, though they wouldn’t be fully available for all combat uniforms until the late 1970s.

Though these uniforms have a classy appearance, they were designed for and used in combat. Their OD green color was the precursor to camouflage.

Though these uniforms have a classy appearance, they were designed for and used in combat. Their OD green color was the precursor to camouflage.

This World War II-era USMC combat uniform top was made between 1942 and 1944. Note the reversible camo pattern can be seen inside the collar (source: GIJive).

This World War II-era USMC combat uniform top was made between 1942 and 1944. Note the reversible camo pattern can be seen inside the collar (source: GIJive).

For collectors, these pattern camouflage combat uniforms are some of the most highly sought items due to their scarcity and aesthetics. The units who wore the camo in WWII through the Viet Nam War tended to be more elite or highly specialized as their function dictated even better concealment than was afforded with the OD uniforms worn by regular troops.

Fast-forward to the present-day armed forces, where camouflage is now commonplace among all branches. The Navy, in 2007-2008, was the last to employ camo, a combination of varying shades of blue, for their utility uniforms citing the concealment benefits (of shipboard dirt and grime) the pattern affords sailors. All of the services have adopted the digital or pixellated camo that is either a direct-use or derivative of the Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP) first employed (by the U.S.) with the Marine Corps when it debuted in 2002. Since then, collectors have been scouring the thrift and surplus shops, seeking to gather every digital camo uniform style along with like-patterned field gear and equipment.

The first of the U.S. Armed Forces to employ digital camouflage, the USMC was able to demonstrate successful concealment of their ranks in all combat theaters. Shown are the two variations, “Desert” on the left and “Woodland” on the right.

The first of the U.S. Armed Forces to employ digital camouflage, the USMC was able to demonstrate successful concealment of their ranks in all combat theaters. Shown are the two variations, “Desert” on the left and “Woodland” on the right.

change-5After a very limited testing cycle and what appeared to be a rush to get their own digital camo pattern, the U.S. Army rolled out their ACU or Army Combat Uniform with troops that were deploying to Iraq in 2005. With nearly $5 billion (yes, that is a “B”) in outfitting their troops with uniforms, the army brass announced this week that they are abandoning the ACU for a different pattern citing poor concealment performance and ineffectiveness across all combat environments. With the news of the change, the army has decided upon the replacement pattern, known as MultiCam, which has already been in use exclusively in the Afghanistan theater.

For collectors of MultiCam, this could be both a boon (making the items abundantly available) and a detractor (the limited pattern was more difficult to obtain which tended to drive the prices up with the significant demand). For those who pursue ACU, it could take decades for prices to start climbing which means that stockpiling these uniforms could be a waste of time and resources. Only time will tell.

Since the Civil War, the U.S. Army uniform has one very consistent aspect that soldiers and collectors alike can hang their hat upon…change.

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Introductory Flight – Collecting Aviator Wings


From the top: Command Pilot, Senior Pilot and Pilot of the US Army Air Force. The naval aviator “wings of gold” are really set apart from its USAAF counterparts.

From the top: Command Pilot, Senior Pilot and Pilot of the US Army Air Force. The naval aviator “wings of gold” are really set apart from its USAAF counterparts.

Since the early twentieth century, all of the branches armed forces of the United States have been bolstered by service men and women who are highly skilled, reaching the pinnacle of their specialized area of expertise. From aviators, to paratroopers, to submarine crew members and combat infantrymen, all are easily recognizable by the devices and pins affixed to their uniforms.

Since the advent of military flight and the employment of aviators in war-fighting aircraft, leadership within the ranks realized that there was a need to provide a uniform accouterments to set these special and unique servicemen apart from the rest of those in uniform.

During World War I, the Air Service (U.S. Army) began issuing qualified pilots a winged pin device to attach to the left breast of their uniform blouse. The device was constructed in silver-colored metal (mostly silver or sterling silver or embroidered in silver bullion thread) with two ornately feathered bird wings attached to either side of a shield, which had 13 stars in a field over 13 stripes. Superimposed over the shield were the letters, “U.S.” This wing design would remain in use throughout the Great War.

A nice example of a World War i balloon pilot’s single wing of the Army Air Service.

A nice example of a World War i balloon pilot’s single wing of the Army Air Service.

During the interwar period (1919-1941), the U.S. Army Air Corps wings were more standardized, dropping the U.S. lettering and simplifying the design. The shape of the shield became more standardized though it would vary depending upon the manufacturer. The Air Corps also began introducing varying degrees of the pins that signified the experience of the aviator. In addition to the existing pilot badge, the senior pilot (which added a five-point star above the shield) and command pilot (with a five-point star inside a wreath) badges were issued.

This stunning 8th Air Force 2nd Lieutenant’s uniform has a beautiful example of a silver bullion wing. In fact, all of the (typically metal) devices are made from silver bullion thread.

This stunning 8th Air Force 2nd Lieutenant’s uniform has a beautiful example of a silver bullion wing. In fact, all of the (typically metal) devices are made from silver bullion thread.

This display features WWII USMC ace, Major Bruce Porter’s decoration and medals with his naval aviator “wings of gold.”

This display features WWII USMC ace, Major Bruce Porter’s decoration and medals with his naval aviator “wings of gold.”

The new naval aviation service also adopted a wing device for their aviators that incorporated a similar design (bird wings attached to a shield with stars and stripes) but with an anchor, arranged vertically, extending from behind the shield with the ring and stock above and the crown and flukes below. Most of these early wings were constructed in a gold metal (sometimes actual gold) or embroidered using gold bullion thread. The navy wings of gold remain virtually unchanged to present day, with variations occurring between various manufacturers.

With a little effort, new collectors can quickly educate themselves as to the nuances of the (World War II to present) coveted, yet relatively affordable, wings. Many of the naval (which include USMC flyers) and air corps/forces wings from WWII can be had for prices ranging from $50-$100 depending on the scarcity or abundance of the variant.

During World War II, women pilots were needed to ferry aircraft from the manufacturers to the troops, saving the experienced aviators for front-line combat. This beautiful WASP uniform features pilot wings.

During World War II, women pilots were needed to ferry aircraft from the manufacturers to the troops, saving the experienced aviators for front-line combat. This beautiful WASP uniform features pilot wings.

Due to the incredible desirability and rarity of wings (i.e. extremely high dollar values) from the first World War, these pieces are some of the most copied and faked militaria items. Some of the examples are so well-made (in some cases, by skilled jewelers) that expert collectors have difficulty discerning them from the genuine artifacts. The best advice before acquiring a WWI piece is to consult an expert. Also, be sure that the seller is reputable and will offer a full refund if the item is determined to be a fake.

Pappy’s Mameluke


Perhaps no other (U.S.) branch of service reveres their dress sword or sabre as much as the United States Marine Corps. Likewise, no other branch has quite the history as do the Marines with regards to their beautifully appointed blade, the Mameluke.

Note the unique handle and hilt of the Mameluke. This example is a World War I-era sword (eBay photo).

Note the unique handle and hilt of the Mameluke. This example is a World War I-era sword (eBay photo).

Dating back to the days of hand to hand combat when Marines had a prominent presence aboard U.S. Navy warships, swords and sabres were a required arsenal element issued to both officers and regular, enlisted men. In the age of sail, enemy ships would draw within gun range, firing upon each other with cannons in an effort to disable their opponents’ ability to maneuver and make way. Once the enemy was disabled, boarding of the vessel for capture was usually the goal. Victorious in the gun battle, the ship would be positioned alongside the prey and the boarding parties, already armed and assembled, would initiate hand-to-hand fighting as they poured over the gunwales to take their prize. Firing single-shot pistols and brandishing their swords and sabres, the Marines would overpower the wounded ship’s crew to capture their prize.

Today, swords are only used by officers and enlisted men in the Marine Corps for ceremonies and formal occasions. For officers’ wear, that sword is known simply as the Mameluke (pronounced: ma’am-uh-luke).  With its origins dating back to 1805 when Presley O’Bannon, a Marine veteran of the Barbary War, was presented a sword by Prince Hamet (viceroy of the Ottoman Empire) following the Battle of Derne. In 1825, 5th Marine Corps Commandant Archibald Henderson adopted a sword (that was modeled after O’Bannon’s Ottoman gift) for wear by officers. With very little design change, the Mameluke is the second longest tenured sword in the U.S. military service; the Army’s model 1840 has been in consecutive service since inception while the older Mameluke was set aside from 1859-1875.

Arguably, the Mameluke is one of the most collectible U.S. military swords due to its unique design, aesthetic qualities and very limited quantities. Even more collectible are those swords whose original owners were Marine Corps legends.

Boyington's engraved Mameluke sword on display at VMF-214 squadron hangar's museum (USMC photo).

Boyington’s engraved Mameluke sword on display at VMF-214 squadron hangar’s museum (USMC photo).

Imagine perusing a local garage sale where you happen to spot a military scabbard with a sword handle protruding. You see grasp the handle, examining the condition and notice the distinctive white, hooked handle with a cross-shaped gilded hilt. You begin to recognize that you are holding a Mameluke. Curious to see if there is any engraving present, you withdraw the blade from the scabbard. Checking the grimy, corroded surface inches below the hilt you spot, “G. Bo…” You rub the verdigris and dirt from the surface, “…y…ing…t…” Your heartbeat quickens as your mind races, as you string the letters together. You clear the last bits of the loose filth to see the remaining letters, “…o…n.” Your mind screams, “G. BOYINGTON!!!…this is Pappy Boyington’s sword!!”

Major Greg "Pappy" Boyington during World War II.

Major Greg “Pappy” Boyington during World War II.

Fortunately for historians and the Boyington family, this did happen. One of the family’s friends found and purchased Medal of Honor Recipient, Major Gregory “Pappy” Boyington’s Mameluke at a garage sale  and gave it to his son, Greg Boyington, Jr. A few years ago, Boyington Jr. donated the sword (along some of the ace’s other personal belongings) to the legendary aviator’s squadron, Yuma, Arizona-based VMA-214. The Blacksheep now have the sword safely on display along with a handful of Boyington’s personal militaria. Personally, I would have had a difficult time letting go of such an important piece of history

USMC Patch Rarities and Scarcities – What to Look For


Admittedly, patch collecting has only been a dabbling affair for me. While I find this focus area quite intriguing and considerably broad, I still only give it contextual attention. What I mean by that is that I tend to acquire patches that are related or connected to something else I am already collecting. However, there are some exceptions that have lead me to dive a little deeper, assembling a little bit more of a complete collection of certain patches and shoulder sleeve insignia.

Being a veteran of the U.S. Navy, I find that I am more inclined toward navy and Marine Corps patches. Considering that Navy shoulder patches, predominantly seen during WWII, are limited to a handful of varieties, I have been slowly working to expand my collection with at least one example of each. Serious patch collectors know that each of these Navy patch types may have several variations in their design, embroidery, thread colors and backing materials, just to name a few. Rather than commit a lot of time and finances in the pursuit, I chose to simply fill the hole in the collection with one of the variations. My collecting of Marine Corps patches has followed the same path, but with the wider spectrum of patches, but building a complete group will require more time.

Time is something I have plenty of. World War II Marine Corps SSI run the gamut of availability and scarcity and unfortunately, more disposable cash is going to be required for me to fill the gaps in my collection as some USMC patches are downright scarce and highly sought-after. A few months ago, I introduced you to the basics of Devil Dog patches, providing you with a brief history and insight into the more common pieces. However, I didn’t begin to scratch the surface regarding those items that draw the attention of hardcore collectors and fakers alike.

One could essentially group Marine Corps patches into a few levels of availability or scarcity. I am hesitant to apply the term “rare” as sometimes it erroneously conveys to novice collectors a sense of exorbitant monetary value on an item. What this means is that while something might be hard to find, it doesn’t mean that there are lots of collectors are competing for the same item. However, in some instances with the hard-to-find USMC patches, rare and scarce can be interchangeable and the values can be cost-prohibitive for the majority of collectors. In my experience, I’ve categorized USMC patches by their use (i.e. unit type).

Divisions
These patches cover the WWII USMC divisions ranging from the First (1st) through the Sixth (6th) Marine Divisions (MarDiv). Besides the common patches, there are some hard-to-find examples, especially those created during the very early months of the war. The 1st MarDiv patches that were made in Australia (when the division was relieved and sent to Melbourne for R&R following the Guadalcanal operation of 1942-43). These patches are quite distinct featuring a unique backing material and unique embroidery. Of course there are a vast number of variations for each of the subsequent divisions to be on the lookout for.

Marine Air Wing (MAW)
For the purposes of organizing my collection, I have also grouped in the Marine Aircraft Fuselage patches as the units are connected. The MAW units are organized from the 1st through 4th and also include a headquarters group. Each unit has an associated patch design. The same structure applies to the Fuselage units and their patches (1st-4th and HQ). There are several variants of each patch design which can make a novice get cross-eyed wading through each one.

Marine Air Wing Patch variants. One of these is a felt patch.

This assortment of patches includes examples of all four Marine Fuselage units along with the HQ patch (shown with the crown). The bottom SSI is from the 1st Marine Air Wing.

 

Raider Battalions

Perhaps the most widely sought patches originate from the elite Marine Raiders. These legendary units were the original Marine Special Forces units and employed highly skilled grunts who routinely operated behind enemy lines. The unit patch design is simplistic but conveys an ominous symbol superimposed onto a field of blue with five white stars. There are several variations of this patch with correlating price ranges – the upper end of which can break almost any collector’s bank.

Amphibious Corps
These patches employ a similar design to the Marine Raiders patch, borrowing the shape, color, five-star arrangement and the central white-bordered, red diamond field.

Marine Defense Battalions
These battalions were responsible for providing protection of bases throughout the Pacific Theater and consisted of more specialized units including coastal gun and anti-aircraft batteries, a detection battery (searchlights and radar) and machine gun units. These patches would be characterized more as scarce rather than rare. Authentic examples are available but are nowhere near as common as the division patches. Expect to pay a bit of a premium for these patches.

Fleet Marine Forces Pacific (FMFPAC)
Nine patch designs align with the eight units (anti-aircraft artillery, artillery battalions, bomb disposal companies, dog platoons, DUKW companies, engineer battalions, supply and tractor battalions) along with a headquarters unit, and pose an interesting challenge for collectors. Along with the embroidery and backing variations, there are some color alternatives (white emblems instead of gold) which pose some challenges for collectors locating them all.

Showing the patch fronts of four of the Fleet Marine Forces, Pacific; V Amphibious Corps (with the alligator); also displayed is the “Londonderry” patch of the ” Irish Marines’ of the 1st Provisional Marine Battalion.

Showing the patch fronts of four of the Fleet Marine Forces, Pacific; V Amphibious Corps (with the alligator); also displayed is the “Londonderry” patch of the ” Irish Marines’ of the 1st Provisional Marine Battalion.

Among these patches are four examples of the FMF PAC units. The example in the bottom row (with the star) is a more rare white-thread example of the FMF PAC Supply unit. The two patches flanking the FMF PAC Supply SSI are the 5th Amphibious Corps (at left) and Marine Detachment Londonderry patch.

Marine Detachment
These detachment patches are some of the most desirable USMC patches, the Londonderry and Ship’s Detachment patches being a bit more affordable than the more rare (and unique) Iceland patch.

Aviation Squadrons
Perhaps the most widely sought after and diverse patches stem from USMC aviation squadrons. These patch designs could include variations that range from Disney crafted in painted-leather to embroidered fabric. Each squadron could have many renditions dependent upon how long the squadron was active and based upon where they were located. Squadrons could have their patches made in theater by resident artisans (including squadron personnel) or by domestic manufacturers. Specific designs could vary based upon available materials or leadership changes. As the WWII veterans’ personal artifact groups continue to arrive on the market, collectors still discover new variations of squadron insignia that were previously unknown, making authentication a challenge even for the most experienced patch enthusiast.

Education about these patches is key. I cannot emphasize enough that research prior to making any purchases of rare patches is highly recommended. One of the best resources is the U.S. Militaria Forum; specifically, What are the Rarest WWII USMC Patches for detailed insight as shared by the most experienced collectors and militaria historians.