Category Archives: Military Era
Researching early military uniforms to ascertain a date or time period when they were issued or used can pose a challenge for collectors. Navy uniforms can be exceedingly difficult to pinpoint when it comes to dating them for a number of reasons.
Over the last few years, I have stressed that education and research materials only serve to enable collectors to make sound purchasing decisions. Knowing where to turn for information can be a daunting task for someone making their initial foray into this hobby. Simply knowing what research material might exist isn’t in the mindset of those seeking details about a uniform or uniform item.
When I started a serious approach to research (in this case, verifying a jumper as pre-World War I), I was in the dark as to where to look so I turned to Google to begin my investigation. With the understanding that information on the web is seldom complete or authoritative, the search results seemed to be ambiguous and quite vague, so I narrowed my focus to locating people I could glean information from. As with any relationship, time is necessary to determine whether an “expert” is truly knowledgeable in their professed field of experience, so there was a risk that I might have received some inaccurate data.
Wanting to have go-to resources at my disposal, I began to gather reference material that suited my needs. My collection being predominantly focused on the service of my relatives and ancestors, I knew that I had to get the details (i.e. enlistment dates, commands assigned to, campaigns they participated in, etc.) of their individual service records. Armed with hard facts, I could then pursue the pertinent reference materials such as individual unit histories, training manuals, and uniform regulations.
Some of these materials are plentiful and relatively inexpensive, such as the Navy’s Blue Jackets Manual (issued to new recruits). Others are somewhat rare, making them difficult to find or posing negative impacts onto collecting budgets. One reference book I had been seeking was the 1913 United States Navy Uniform Regulations. I couldn’t locate one through various book stores or eBay. Fortunately for me, Google Books digitized a copy and had the majority of the book’s content available for online use. Unfortunately, the missing portions were the ones I needed for my research. I was amazed to see that I could purchase a hard copy, printed and bound complete book for less than $10.00, shipped to my door! Naturally, I pulled the trigger and less than five days later, I had the needed reference book in my hands.
What arrived was a paperback book with a high quality glued-in binding that will withstand repeated viewings or being transported to collector shows much better than an original 100-year-old hardbound book with a weakened spine.
Acquiring the 1913 regulations may not appeal to others, but for me this was like locating a missing piece that completes a collection. I’ve confirmed a piece as authentic and I can correctly pursue the remaining outstanding parts to properly complete my uniform display!
Over the weekend leading up to Independence Day, I had been inspired by my family military service research project, which had me neck-deep in the American Civil War, which caused me to drag out a few DVDs for the sheer joy of watching history portrayed on the screen. Since the Fourth of July was coming up, I wanted to be sure to view director Ronald Maxwell’s 1993 film Gettysburg, on or near the anniversary of the battle, which took place on July 1-3, 1863.
I had watched these films (including Gods and Generals and Glory) countless times in the past, but this weekend, I employed more scrutiny while looking at the uniforms and other details. Paying particular attention to the fabrics of the uniforms, I was observing the variations for the different functions (such as artillerymen, cavalrymen, and infantry) while noting how the field commanders could observe from vantage points where these regiments were positioned, making any needed adjustments to counter the opponents’ movements or alignments. For those commanders, visual observations from afar were imperative and the uniforms (and regimental colors/flags) were mandatory to facilitate good decision making.
The tactics employed for the majority of the Civil War were largely carryovers from previous conflicts and had not kept pace with the advancement of the weaponry. Armies were still arranged in battle lines facing off with the enemy at very close range (the blue of the Union and the gray of the Confederacy), before the commands were given to open fire with the rifles and side arms. The projectile technology and barrel rifling present in the almost all of the infantry firearms meant that a significantly higher percentage of the bullets would strike the targets. In prior conflicts where smooth-bore muskets and round-ball projectiles were the norm, hitting the target was met with far less success.
The uniforms of the Civil War had also seen some advancement as they departed from the highly stylized affairs of the Revolution to a more functional design. In the years following the war, uniform designs saw some minor alterations through the Indian Wars and into the Spanish American War. By World War I, concealment and camouflaging the troops started to become a consideration of military leadership. Gone were the colorful fabrics, exchanged for olive drab (OD) green. By World War II, camo patterns began to emerge in combat uniforms for the army and marines, though they wouldn’t be fully available for all combat uniforms until the late 1970s.
For collectors, these pattern camouflage combat uniforms are some of the most highly sought items due to their scarcity and aesthetics. The units who wore the camo in WWII through the Viet Nam War tended to be more elite or highly specialized as their function dictated even better concealment than was afforded with the OD uniforms worn by regular troops.
Fast-forward to the present-day armed forces, where camouflage is now commonplace among all branches. The Navy, in 2007-2008, was the last to employ camo, a combination of varying shades of blue, for their utility uniforms citing the concealment benefits (of shipboard dirt and grime) the pattern affords sailors. All of the services have adopted the digital or pixellated camo that is either a direct-use or derivative of the Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP) first employed (by the U.S.) with the Marine Corps when it debuted in 2002. Since then, collectors have been scouring the thrift and surplus shops, seeking to gather every digital camo uniform style along with like-patterned field gear and equipment.
After a very limited testing cycle and what appeared to be a rush to get their own digital camo pattern, the U.S. Army rolled out their ACU or Army Combat Uniform with troops that were deploying to Iraq in 2005. With nearly $5 billion (yes, that is a “B”) in outfitting their troops with uniforms, the army brass announced this week that they are abandoning the ACU for a different pattern citing poor concealment performance and ineffectiveness across all combat environments. With the news of the change, the army has decided upon the replacement pattern, known as MultiCam, which has already been in use exclusively in the Afghanistan theater.
For collectors of MultiCam, this could be both a boon (making the items abundantly available) and a detractor (the limited pattern was more difficult to obtain which tended to drive the prices up with the significant demand). For those who pursue ACU, it could take decades for prices to start climbing which means that stockpiling these uniforms could be a waste of time and resources. Only time will tell.
Since the Civil War, the U.S. Army uniform has one very consistent aspect that soldiers and collectors alike can hang their hat upon…change.
By May of 1945, most of Europe was in shambles, utterly destroyed by nearly 6 years of war waged in countries such as Czechoslovakia, France, England, Italy, The Soviet Union, Spain, The Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Poland and Germany. Considering the unyielding daylight bombing by Allied aircraft over German targets and the “Nerobefehl” or Nero Decree (scorched earth) policies of the retreating Wehrmacht, it is amazing that the survivors even had homes to return to after the cessation of hostilities.
When the weapons and machines of the war fell silent, some 40-million* non-combatant people (civilians) had been obliterated – wiped from existence. In the Allied European nations, estimates of the civilian dead are upwards of 25 million. For the European Axis nations, nearly 8,000,000 civilians were gone.
Utter devastation was present seemingly in every location. Those who survived the conflict were left facing uncertainty and immense challenges to reconstruct and rebuild their cities and towns from the mountains of rubble and bomb-craters. The effort would require a coalition of nations to coordinate the monumental effort while overseeing the dismantling of the German war machine.
In the waning weeks of conflict in Europe, the Allied nations had established and agreed upon boundaries that would limit the extent each nation’s push as German resistance ebbed. By the first week of May, 1945, it was all over. Hitler, fully aware of the fate that awaited him should he be captured by Soviets who were closing in on his bunker, chose to take his own life on April 30. Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz now in charge (Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring was removed from this position due to his attempt to take power prior to Hitler’s death), agreed to surrender unconditionally to the Allies. The instrument of surrender was signed on May 7, to take effect the next day, by Germany’s representative, General Alfred Jodl, who would be hanged in 1946 having been found guilty of war crimes.
During the first half of the twentieth century, Germany had initiated two world wars, and initiating and inflicting considerable devastation upon other nations. Rather than leave this repeat aggressor to its own devices and risk a third global war, the Allies decided to be proactive in overseeing not only the German reconstruction effort but to instill a system (under the Potsdam Agreement) of governance for control and management. Not only did the Allies agree to create zones of occupation but they had to work to establish and define national borders due to Germany’s continuous disputes and territorial claims spanning the previous decades resulting in the redrawing of much of the Western European map.
Germany was divided, in accordance to Allied agreements, into five zones: British, French, Polish, American and Soviet, providing for monitoring and governing by military leaders from the respective nations. The capital city of Berlin was similarly divided between France, Britain and the U.S. controlling one half of the city and the Soviet Union taking over the other). With re-construction well underway and the war criminal trials concluded in 1946,
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.” – Sir Winston Churchill, March 5, 1946:
With increased tensions between the former allies over which nation would be the sole supplier of West Berlin (the USSR sought control of West Berlin by making the city solely dependent upon Russian provisions) , the Soviets began an 11-month long blockade (June 1948 – May 1949) in an effort to choke off the supply routes (roads, rails and waterways) between West Germany and West Berlin prompting the United States and Britain to commence a massive-scale relief effort, flying all supplies into the isolated city.
The original intent of the allied agreements was to eventually merge the zones back into a single German nation. Between 1947 and 1949, the three western zones (American, British and French) merged to form the West German Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Due to continued breakdowns in negotiations with the Soviets, the Eastern zones would remain in Soviet control and a subsequent establishment of communist East Germany – also known as the German Democratic Republic (GDR).
Within two years of the creation of the German Soviet-state (the GDR), fear began to run rampant among the East German citizens who were witnessing the increased control being foisted upon them by the Stalin regime. In West Germany, reconstruction was in full swing and her citizens were beginning to taste the freedom and prosperity of a democratic society. Seeking to escape the death-grip of communism, East Germans began to flee the GDR for the FRG (West Berlin, specifically) beginning in 1950. By 1953, upwards of 1 million East Germans had escaped in nearly four years’ time – over a quarter million in the first few months of ‘53 alone.
Seeking to stem the outflow of their citizens, East German officials began restricting travel to western areas, following the direction of other Eastern Bloc nations. This control would be tightened over the next several years. Losing more than 3.5 million to successful escapes to the West, the first elements of the infamous wall would begin to be set in place in August of 1961 by order of GDR government officials. It is unknown, however if the decision was directed by Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. The Iron curtain was solidifying, being set in concrete.
For decades, the wall would be in place, surrounding the city. Unlike the ancient times when cities were walled to protect those within from invaders, this wall was constructed to keep its citizens from escaping to freedom. The Wall stood as both a symbolic and literal representation of communism. For those behind it, getting beyond the Wall meant having a chance at a better life and that getting there alive would be a monumental challenge. Countless few did make it across while Some 136 people would die in direct connection to the Berlin Wall. 98% of those deaths were the result of attempted escapes – 97 of them were shot dead by GDR border guards.
By the mid-1980s and the height of President Ronald Reagan’s time in office, Soviet control over Europe was beginning to wane. Fed up with the boot of communism, the citizens of the Eastern Bloc nations began to revolt as they pursued democratic freedom. Seizing upon the momentum of the spreading freedom and liberty, President Reagan visited the Wall and gave the famous speech at the Brandenburg Gate, calling for the removal of the wall.
“Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!” – President Ronald Reagan, June 12, 1987:
The grip of communist control continued to disintegrate. In 1989, beginning with Poland, the revolution was in full swing as one by one, Eastern-bloc nations emerged from behind the Iron Curtain. On November 4th, more than 500,000 East Germans gathered at the Alexanderplatz in protest, the culmination of the Peaceful Revolution that had started previously in September. By the 9th of November, the Wall began to fall – the actual demolition taking the better part of the following year.
German reunification was now free to commence.
Since WWII, the U.S. military has maintained presence in Germany in an evolving capacity beginning with dismantling of the Nazi war machine to providing security and stability in holding the spread of Soviet communism in check. Today, U.S. Army and Air Force bases are maintained in Germany, strategically located, providing vital services and resources for forward deployed forces.
Collecting items directly related or connected to the allied occupation and the Berlin Wall, to me is an interesting proposition. For militaria collectors, locating a grouping from veteran who served in the Berlin Airlift (something of a rarity) or of guard at Checkpoint Charlie would make for a uniquely historic display.
Along with the occupation medal that was awarded to my uncle for his post-VE Day service in Germany, I have some signage with stern messaging in both German and English.
If collectors simply wanted a piece of the Berlin Wall, there are plenty of online sources selling pieces of varying sizes, though it would be a dubious pursuit as an investment as there were nearly 70 miles of the double-wall.
More about the Berlin Wall:
*This number includes the victims of the Holocaust.